# 1d Hydraulics (Manning-Strickler Formula)#

Goals

Write a basic script and use loops. Write a function and parse optional keyword arguments (**kwargs).

Requirements

Python libraries: math (standard library). Read and understand how loops and Functions work in Python.

Get ready by cloning the exercise repository:

git clone https://github.com/Ecohydraulics/Exercise-ManningStrickler.git


## Theoretical background#

The Gauckler-Manning-Strickler formula [KC08] (or Strickler formula in Europe) relates water depth and flow velocity of open channel flow based on the assumption of one-dimensional (cross-section-averaged) flow characteristics. The Strickler formula results from a heavy simplification of the Navier-Stokes equations and the Continuity equation [KC08]. Even though one-dimensional (1d) approaches have largely been replaced by at least two-dimensional (2d) numerical models today, the 1d Strickler formula is still frequently used as a first approximation for boundary conditions.

The basic shape of the Strickler formula is:

$u = k_{st}\cdot S^{1/2} \cdot R_{h}^{2/3}$

where:

• $$u$$ is the cross-section-averaged flow velocity in (m/s)

• $$k_{st}$$ is the Strickler coefficient in fictional (m$$^{1/3}$$/s) corresponding to the inverse of Manning’s $$n_m$$.

• $$k_{st}$$ $$\approx$$ 20 ($$n_m \approx$$ 0.05) for rough, complex, and near-natural rivers

• $$k_{st}$$ $$\approx$$ 90 ($$n_m \approx$$ 0.011) for smooth, concrete-lined channels

• $$k_{st}$$ $$\approx$$ 26/$$D_{90}^{1/6}$$ (approximation based on the grain size $$D_{90}$$, where 90% of the surface sediment grains are smaller, according to Meyer-Peter and Müller [MPM48]

• $$S$$ is the hypothetic energy slope (m/m), which can be assumed to correspond to the channel slope for steady, uniform flow conditions.

• $$R_{h}$$ is the hydraulic radius in (m)

The hydraulic radius $$R_{h}$$ is the ratio of wetted area $$A$$ and wetted perimeter $$P$$. Both $$A$$ and $$P$$ can be calculated as a function of the water depth $$h$$ and the channel base width $$b$$. Many channel cross-sections can be approximated with a trapezoidal shape, where the water surface width $$B=b+2\cdot h\cdot m$$ (with $$m$$ being the bank slope as indicated in the figure below).

Thus, $$A$$ and $$P$$ result from the following formulas:

$A = h \cdot 0.5\cdot (b + B) = h \cdot (b + h\cdot m)$
$P = b + 2h\cdot (m^2 + 1)^{1/2}$

Finally, the discharge $$Q$$ (m³/s) can be calculated as:

$Q = u \cdot A = k_{st} \cdot S^{1/2}\cdot R_{h}^{2/3} \cdot A$

## Calculate the discharge#

Write a script that prints the discharge as a function of the channel base width $$b$$, bank slope $$m$$, water depth $$h$$, the slope $$S$$, and the Strickler coefficient $$k_{st}$$.

Tip

Use import math as m to calculate square roots (m.sqrt). Powers are calculated with the ** operator (e.g., $$m^2$$ corresponds to m**2).

## Functionalize#

Cast the calculation into a function (e.g., def calc_discharge(b, h, k_st, m, S): ...) that returns the discharge $$Q$$.

## Flexibilize#

Make the function more flexible through the implementation of (optional) keyword arguments so that a user can optionally either provide the $$D_{90}$$ (D90), the Strickler coefficient $$k_{st}$$ (k_st), or Manning’s $$n_m$$ (n_m).

Tip

In the code, only use Manning’s $$n_m$$ and parse kwargs.items() to find out the kwargs provided by a user.

## Invert the function#

The backward solution to the Manning-Strickler formula is a non-linear problem if the channel is not rectangular. This is why an iterative approximation is needed and here, we use the Newton-Raphson scheme [AK87] for this purpose (see also the the University of Stuttgart’s ILIAS platform).

Absolute Values

The absolute value of a parameter can be easily accessed through the built-in abs() method in Python3.

Use a Newton-Raphson solution scheme [Pai92] to interpolate the water depth h for a given discharge Q of a trapezoidal channel.

• Write a new function def interpolate_h(Q, b, m, S, **kwargs):

• Define an initial guess of h (e.g., h = 1.0) and an initial error margin (e.g., eps = 1.0)

• Use a while loop until the error margin is negligible small (e.g., while eps > 10**-3:) and calculate the :

• wetted area A (see above formula)

• wetted perimeter P (see above formula)

• current discharge guess (based on h): Qk = A ** (5/3) * sqrt(S) / (n_m * P ** (2 / 3))

• error update eps = abs(Q - Qk) / Q

• derivative of A:
dA_dh = b + 2 * m * h

• derivative of P:
dP_dh = 2 * m.sqrt(m ** 2 + 1)

• function that should become zero F = n_m * Q * P ** (2 / 3) - A ** (5 / 3) * m.sqrt(S)

• its derivative:
dF_dh = 2/3 * n_m * Q * P ** (-1 / 3) * dP_dh - 5 / 3 * A ** (2 / 3) * m.sqrt(S) * dA_dh

• water depth update h = abs(h - F / dF_dh)

• Implement an emergency stop to avoid endless iterations - the Newton-Raphson scheme is not always stable!

• Return h and eps (or calculated discharge Qk)